GM CSF Human-Colony Stimulating Factor

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GM CSF Human

Qty


Total
$65
Catalog #
CYPS-228
Size
Description
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 127 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 14477 Dalton. GM-CSF is purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.
Additional Information
IntroductionGranulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) was first characterized as a growth factor that supports the in-vitro colony formation of granulocytes-macrophages progenitor cells (1, 2). It is a pleiotropic cytokine and a member of a family of endogenous cytokines of the hematopoietic system. GM-CSF is produced as a response to immune or inflammatory stimuli by activated cells of the hematopoietic system such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, mast cells and also fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. It plays an important role in regulating the proliferation, differentiation, survival and activation of hematopoietic cells such as granulocytes and monocytes ,neutrophiles, basophiles and eosonophoiles, erythroid cells, megakaryocytes and T cells (3,4).Human and mouse GM-CSF have about 56% homology and are species specific. Human GM-CSF is not active on mouse cells and vice versa. It is active on canine and feline cells (5, 6).GMCSF is 144 amino acids, 22kDa glycoprotein. It is composed of four bundles alpha helices. Its receptor is heterodimers with a ligand-specific alpha subunit and a betac (?c) subunit that is shared with the interleukin IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. This unusual form of receptor assembly likely applies also to IL-3 and IL-5 receptors. Cross-linking the two receptor subunits is required for receptor activation and signaling (7, 8).GMCSF has been shown to be involved in maturation, mobilization and antigen presentation of myeloid dentritic cells (DCs) in-vivo or ex-vivo. This function promotes Th1 immune responses, cytotoxcity, anti-angiogenesis as well as allergic inflammation, and the development of autoimmunity (9-11). Therefore GMCSF can be used in immunotherapy for the treatment of immune suppressed and immune-compromised patients as well as in veterinary medicine for the same purpose (12-14). GM-CSF is also important in regulation of embryo development and pregnancy and specifically in embryo implantation and subsequent development (15, 16).
SynonymsCSF-2, MGI-1GM, GM-CSF, Pluripoietin-alpha, Molgramostin, Sargramostim, MGC131935, MGC138897.
SourceEscherichia Coli.
Physical AppearanceSterile Filtered White lyophilized (freeze-dried) powder.
FormulationGM-CSF was lyophilized after extensive dialysis against 2mM sodium phosphate buffer pH= 7.4
SolubilityIt is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in sterile 18MΩ-cm H2O not less than 100µg/ml, which can then be further diluted to other aqueous solutions.
StabilityLyophilized Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor althoµgh stable at room temperature for 3 weeks, should be stored desiccated below -18°C. Upon reconstitution GMCSF should be stored at 4°C between 2-7 days and for future use below -18°C.For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).Please prevent freeze-thaw cycles.
Amino Acid SequenceThe
sequence
of
the
first
five
N-terminal
amino
acids
was
determined
and
was
found
to
be
Ala-Pro-Ala-Arg-Ser.N-terminal
methionine
has
been
completely
removed
enzymatically.
PurityGreater than 98.0% as determined by1. Analysis by RP-HPLC.2. Analysis by SDS-PAGE.
Biological ActivityThe ED50 as determined by the dose-dependant stimulation of the proliferation of human TF-1 cells (human erythroleukemic indicator cell line) is < 0.1 ng/ml, corresponding to a Specific Activity of 11,100,000 IU/mg.
UsageNeoScientific's products are furnished for LABORATORY RESEARCH USE ONLY. The product may not be used as drµgs, agricultural or pesticidal products, food additives or household chemicals.
References1. Title: Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with an altered expression of low-affinity Fc gamma receptors and costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells.Publication: Immunology. 2009 Nov;128(3):334-41. PMID: 2770681.Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2770681/Applications: IL-4 and GM-CSF were used to obtain monocyte-derived Dendritic cells(DC) from Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).2. Title: Generation of Novel Bone Forming Cells (Monoosteophils) from the Cathelicidin-Derived Peptide LL-37 Treated Monocytes.Publication: PLoS One. 2010; 5(11): e13985. Published online 2010 November 15. Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981577/?tool=pmcentrezApplications: GM-CSF was used to differentiate monocytes into macrophage and to Monocyte-derived dendtritic cells (DCs) from Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Osteoclasts, which are derived from monocytes by the action of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast were differentiated from monocytes in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF (both at 25 ng/mL).And also for cytokine analysis.3.Title:AIMP1/p43 protein induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells with T helper type 1-polarizing ability.Publication: J Immunol. 2008 Mar 1;180(5):2894-902. PMID: 18292511.Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=18292511Applications: Generation of bone marrow DCs.4. Title:Sphingosine kinase regulates the rate of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation.Publication: Blood. 2009 Feb 26;113(9):2108-17. Epub 2008 Dec 24. PMID: 19109558. PMID: 18292511.Link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=19109558Applications: BM cells at 10,000 were plated in 0.3% agar culture medium containing GM-CSF (100 ng/ml, was used with other cytokines for mouse progenitor cell isolation, culture and colony forming assay.5.Title:Defective IL-10 production in severe phenotypes of Crohn’s diseasePublication:Published online before print February 23, 2009, doi: 10.1189/jlb.1108698 May 2009 Journal of Leukocyte Biology vol. 85 no. 5 896-903 Link:http://www.jleukbio.org/content/85/5/896.full6.Title:Adenosine deaminase potentiates the generation of effector, memory, and regulatory CD4+ T cells .Publication:Published online before print October 19, 2010, doi: 10.1189/jlb.1009696 January 2011 Journal of Leukocyte Biology vol. 89 no. 1 127-136 Link:http://www.jleukbio.org/content/89/1/127.full7.Title:Glutamate Released by Dendritic Cells as a Novel Modulator of T Cell Activation.Publication:Link:http://journal.9med.net/qikan/article.php?id=3677938.Title:Airway Epithelial Cells Regulate the Functional Phenotype of Locally Differentiating Dendritic Cells: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Infectious and Allergic Airway Disease1.Publication: The Journal of Immunology January 1, 2009 vol. 182 no. 1 72-83 Link:http://www.jimmunol.org/content/182/1/72.full9.Title:A New Multi-clade DNA Prime/Recombinant MVA Boost Vaccine Induces Broad and High Levels of HIV-1-specific CD8+ T-cell and Humoral Responses in Mice.Publication:Received 31 October 2006; Accepted 14 May 2007; Published online 19 June 2007.Link:http://www.nature.com/mt/journal/v15/n9/full/6300235a.html10.Title: CD26, adenosine deaminase, and adenosinereceptors mediate costimulatory signalsin the immunological synapse.Publication: Published online before printJune 27, 2005, doi:10.1073/pnas.0501050102PNASJuly 5, 2005vol. 102no. 279583-9588.Link:http://www.pnas.org/content/102/27/9583.full.pdf+html11. Title: In?uence of heat stress on human monocyte-derived dendritic cell functions with immunotherapeutic potential for antitumor vaccines.Publication: Published online before printFebruary 20, 2007, doi:10.1189/jlb.0506347 May 2007Journal of Leukocyte Biologyvol. 81no. 51179-1187.Link: http://www.jleukbio.org/content/81/5/1179.full.pdf+html
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